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For such domain, timing and synchronisation devices are considered as a key concept in functional and safety aspects. In fact, GNSS timing receivers can be used for several applications, such as: railway networj timing, railway signalling systems, track to train radio systems, station clock and passenger information, event timestamping (for giuridical recording),timing for diagnostic systems.


Many areas of science require timestamping of when events occur, ranging from an earthquake starts to measurements of signals from distant quasar. As an example, to compare precise atomic frequency standards, Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), particle physics experiments, gravitational wave detection, etc.


Other interested potential Stakeholders, such as Aeronautical National Service Providers, for instance ground radar synchronisation applications and other.


sub‐segment uses GNSS to timestamp financial transactions, allowing one to trace causal relationships and synchronize financial computer systems. Financial services rely on very powerful IT systems and networks requiring a high level of availability, security and reliability. The application selected (Banks and Stock Exchange) is the use of GNSS receiver for the Synchronization and Certified Time Stamping functions to increase security and traceability of transactions


Power Transmission Networks (PMU synchronization) and Network Automatic protections of systems (Wide Area Measurement Systems / Wide Area Control Systems) are using Phasor Measurements Units (PMUs) as a source of Timing & Sync information for Network Monitoring (current use) and Automatic Protection (future use). Automatic Protection requires a high level of accuracy and redundancy at PMU level. PMUs are deployed across remote locations of the power network (nodes), with internal time references currently based on GNSS receivers


Such sub‐segment uses the GNSS timing function for handover between base stations in wireless communications, time slot management purposes and event logging. The application selected is 4G and 5G Networks Synchronization (4k Digital Video Broadcast)